The following is a brief overview of The Stone of Destiny: In Search of the Truth Buy the eBook and read the complete story

Chapter 1
Events Leading up to the Theft

Introduction
Chapter 1 – Events Leading up to the Theft
Chapter 2 – The Legend: From Bethel to Scone
Chapter 3 – A Potted Pre-History of Scotland
Chapter 4 – The Coming of the Patron Saint
Chapter 5 – St Fillan & Bannockburn
Chapter 6 – The Stone of Destiny?
Chapter 7 – Finding the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel
Chapter 8 – Destiny in the 21st Century
Conclusions 

The start of the troubles for Scotland began in 1286 when their King, Alexander III, died abruptly. He was travelling by horseback, against better advice, on a stormy night to be with his wife, when the horse stumbled and threw him over a cliff to his death. This happened at a place called Kinghorn in Fife, and a memorial was erected in 1886 at the site to commemorate the fallen King’s untimely death. Alexander III had no direct living male or female heir, and so the line had to pass to his granddaughter Margaret, the Maid of Norway, as heir apparent. King Alexander’s own daughter, also named Margaret, had married the future King Eric II of Norway as part of the terms of the Treaty of Roxburgh, signed in 1281. Margaret died during childbirth and her death meant that her child, at just three years of age, was to become the Queen of the Scots as the legitimate heir to the throne.

The young Margaret was cared for in Norway and was still there when Alexander died. Before his death, he had made his nobles swear to accept Margaret as Queen, and they had agreed that until she came of age and was able to rule as monarch, the country would be governed by a select few of the wisest and most influential bishops and barons as the guardians of Scotland. Conflicting interests between these nobles meant that the decision making, on behalf of the country, was proving to be a thankless task. It was decided by the Scottish church leaders that they would seek advice from the brother-in-law of the now dead Alexander III, and fellow monarch, King Edward I of England.

Edward saw this as his chance to establish himself as the Overlord of Scotland, which would follow nicely from his recent subjugation of the Kingdom of Wales in 1284, which ended with the Statute of Rhuddlan. Effectively, this would make him the Overlord of Britain, a title that appealed greatly to the ambitious king. Edward arranged a dispensation from the Pope for a marriage between his son (also Edward, and later King Edward II of England) and the young Scots Queen Margaret, who was still resident in Norway during this period. With the signing of the Treaties of Salisbury (1289) and Birgham (1290), the Scots lords finally agreed to the marriage, but there were certain clauses that raised concern; Edward, the son, was to receive a personal right to the Scottish inheritance even if he and Margaret should have no heir themselves, and even if Edward was to subsequently remarry. This would effectively mean that Edward could pass the throne of Scotland to his completely ‘alien’ heirs, thus breaking the traditional Scottish hereditary line of ascension.

The claim of Edward I to the Overlordship of Scotland was in part based on the writings of the historian Nennius, who tells us that he wrote his book Historia Brittonum in the 858th year after the crucifixion of Christ. However, it is now generally accepted that his work is largely the work of fiction, and there is even a debate about whether or not there were two separate chroniclers called Nennius, which confuses the matter even further. But for now we shall assume that any mention of Nennius is for one and the same person.

Confusions aside, Edward promoted an updated version of Nennius’ story by Geoffrey of Monmouth concerning the founding of Britain in order to support his claim to all of the British Isles. He believed that his lineage was descended from a certain King Brutus, to whom Nennius ascribes the founding of Britannia. Brutus came from Italy, but was expelled for accidentally shooting his father with an arrow. As a result, he sailed to the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, in the Tyrrhenian Sea, from which he was also later expelled for various reasons. He subsequently voyaged to the lands of the Gauls and the legend states he built the city of Turones (Turin), but that at some stage he decided to leave and make his way to a little known island to the north-west of the world, upon which he staked his claim and called it Britannia, after himself. By promoting this story, which may or may not be true, Edward refused to accept a separate Scottish monarchy and country, and wanted to see the British Isles reunited once again under his ‘rightful, legitimate and absolute’ reign.

Understandably, the Scots were not too accepting of Edward’s perversion of documented history, but eventually the Treaty of Birgham was agreed and signed in 1290 with everything seemingly resolved between England and Scotland. But disaster was to strike before the marriage went ahead which threw the entire agreement into disarray. Queen Margaret, Maid of Norway, died at the age of seven during her voyage from Norway to Scotland in 1290, thus ending the rule of the House of Canmore and bringing into question who now had the rightful claim to the Scottish throne.

It has been argued that if the marriage between Edward II and Margaret had gone ahead as planned, then nearly three centuries of bloodshed and warfare between England and Scotland could have been avoided, but this will forever remain merely a wishful ‘what if’ scenario. One of the most enduring British conspiracy theories is whether the Maid of Norway was murdered, or sacrificed, to prevent a union of the two crowns. We shall never know.

In all, there were thirteen claimants to the throne, some from illegitimate descent and others from slightly more shaky branches of the family tree. The response of the guardians of Scotland was to again seek the advice of King Edward I, who invited all of the claimants to Berwick Castle on 3rd August 1291, asking them to put forward their case so that he could decide who had the best claim to the throne. It came as somewhat of a shock to the enthusiastic claimants when, upon his arrival, Edward proclaimed himself as ‘The Superior and Lord Paramount of the Kingdom of Scotland’. His right to govern was eventually acknowledged by some rather put out Scots, as there seemed little option but to accept the nightmare scenario. After consideration, Edward decided that the two strongest cases were from Robert Bruce, Lord of Annandale, and John Balliol. The latter was subsequently to gain the King’s favour and was proclaimed as next in line to the Scottish throne at Berwick Castle on 17th November 1291. These two claimants, and their supporters, looked set to do battle which very nearly caused Scotland to enter into a civil war, but Edward’s choice had been made and his decision was final.

John Balliol was crowned at Scone Abbey on 30th November 1292, St Andrew’s day, and was forced to give his oath of homage to Edward, who took every opportunity to remind him of such over the coming years. In October 1295, Balliol saw the way things were heading and had an agreement drawn up with the King of France, later ratified in February 1296, that if Edward should invade either country then they could guarantee the support of the other. This was known as the ‘Auld Alliance’, which annoyed Edward as it effectively meant that if he started a war with either Scotland or France, he could expect to have to fight and defend on both his northern and southern frontiers.

After years of humiliation, Balliol decided to make a stand against Edward when he was asked – ordered – to send Scottish troops to support the English war effort against France in 1296. His defiance, and his attack on Carlisle in March 1296, led to the invasion of Scotland by Edward, whose troops soon retaliated by killing everyone in the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, before marching further north to Dunbar, which would be the battleground of the first war for Scottish independence on 27th April 1296.

Balliol was a poor military tactician who was to flee in despair further north into Scotland soon after Edward had destroyed the Scottish resistance at Dunbar. The two finally met again at Montrose, where Edward took the opportunity for one final act of humiliation – the surrender of the crown and Kingdom of Scotland. Balliol unceremoniously had the royal arms ripped from his jacket by Edward and was subsequently nicknamed ‘Toom Tabard’ (Empty Coat) by his peers. This effectively ended the reign of John Balliol, who was imprisoned in the Tower of London for his defiance, where he remained until his release into exile in France in 1299.

Soon after the surrender of the kingdom by Balliol, the English raiding party went to Scone in search of something that Edward had heard many tales about, and which, if it could be obtained by fair means or foul, could be used to strengthen his claims for the Overlordship of Scotland. What he was looking for, and what he stole, are perhaps two very different things. His theft of the Palladium of Scotland, or the Stone of Destiny as it is called today, began one of the greatest debates of history ever since – is the stone that Edward took in 1296, and that is still used in coronation ceremonies to this day, which now resides in Edinburgh Castle; is this the stone he was really after?

Buy The Stone of Destiny as an eBook

Introduction
Chapter 1 – Events Leading up to the Theft
Chapter 2 – The Legend: From Bethel to Scone
Chapter 3 – A Potted Pre-History of Scotland
Chapter 4 – The Coming of the Patron Saint
Chapter 5 – St Fillan & Bannockburn
Chapter 6 – The Stone of Destiny?
Chapter 7 – Finding the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel
Chapter 8 – Destiny in the 21st Century
Conclusions  

 Copyright © 2007-2011 Mark Naples & David Bews

Get MappLore the New iPhone and iPad App. Find Out More at MappLore.com

iTunes - USA MappLore - The World as Your Bookstore - MappLore Ltd

iTunes - UK MappLore - The World as Your Bookstore - MappLore Ltd

Bookmark this Page
Facebook Twitter Stumbleupon Google Bookmarks


New On Temple of Mysteries

Opinions on The Priory of Sion

Pierre Plantard The Grand Master

Leonardo da Vinci The Engineer, Scientist and Innovator